Listen here to an interview with DA Henderson, author, "Smallpox: The Death of a Disease" (Prometheus Books, 2009); Director, World Health Organization's Global Smallpox Eradication Campaign (1966-1977). The eradication of smallpox was both an amazing feat of medicine, and a great mercy from God.
"Smallpox is an acute contagious disease caused by Variola virus, a member of the orthopoxvirus family. It was one of the world's most feared diseases until it was eradicated by a collaborative global vaccination programme led by the World Health Organization. The last known natural case was in Somalia in 1977. Since then, the only known cases were caused by a laboratory accident in 1978 in Birmingham, England, which killed one person and caused a limited outbreak. Smallpox was officially declared eradicated in 1979." WHO
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Here is an article and interview discussing "evidence-based medicine" - the field of study driving the latest health care screening guidelines.
Listen here to an interesting (and very civil) discussion between and advocate and an opponent of the new mammography screening guidelines.
And here is a brief discussion of the politics of health care screening guidelines.